This will continue; the area was hit by a devastating drought in the summer of 2000.
Population increases to the east, centered around fertile oases and the valleys of the Amu-Darya River, once known as the Oxus, and the Zeravshan River, which supports the ancient city-states of Bokhara and Samarkand.
Russians and Tajiks are each 5 percent, Karakalpaks 2 percent, and other nationalities the remainder.
The flag and national colors—green for nature, white for peace, red for life, and blue for water—adorn murals and walls.
It is so close to modern Uyghur that speakers of each language can converse easily.
Prior to Russian colonization it would often have been hard to say where one Turkic language started and another ended.
Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Afghanistan also border the country.
In 1867 the Russian colonial government moved the capital from Bokhara to Tashkent.
The mythical bird Semurg on the state seal also symbolizes a national renaissance.